onsdag 11 december 2013

Neuro-peptides


"Our thoughts create our reality".
This is a strange concept for most of us. How could what you think, possibly make you sick or well?
    Candace Pert is an neuroscientist who did a lot of research on the neuropeptides. She was the first to call them the ‘molecules of emotions’.

 Peptides are miniscule pieces of protein.
Protein comes from the Greek word ‘proteios’, meaning primary. Proteins are the first material of life as we know it. Peptides consist of strings of amino acids of varying lengths, joined together in a necklace by very strong bonds made of carbon and nitrogen.
   Between 10 and 100 amino acids that form a strong bond, are called peptides. Between 100 to 200 are called polypeptides and more than 200 are called proteins.
Amino acids are the letters that when combined in certain sequences, form the words that are peptides, or the sentences that are polypeptides or proteins. These make up a language that forms and directs the function of every single cell, organ and system inside the body, from the deepest vibrations of the DNA molecule inside the nucleus of every cell, to the macrocosmic systems function of the whole individual being.

More than 90 neuropeptides have been identified so far, associated with mood changes, nerve, hormone and immune regulation. Wellknown groups of neuropeptides include the neurotransmitters that carry messages across synapses in the nervous system, growth factors, gut peptides, immune system modulators (e.g. interleukins, cytokines, chemokines, growth inhibitors that tell cells when to stop growing*). A better term for the peptides might be informational substances. Other common peptides include the endorphins (our own happy hormones), insulin (responsible for blood sugar control), vasopressin (responsible for blood pressure), sex hormone releasing hormones, serotonin (the feel-good neurotransmitter) There are 20 essential amino acids found in the human body, meaning that we have to take it in from the food we eat, as they’re not manufactured inside the body, hence ‘essential’.

The first peptide, secretin was discovered in the gut. This surprised scientists as they thought all physiological functions were controlled purely by electrical impulses from the brain and nerves. Then the endogenous endorphins, enkephalin peptides that bind to the body’s own opiate (morphine-like) receptors inside the brain, were found. This lead to a mad search for receptors and their binding peptides inside the brain, hence the pronoun ‘neuro’peptides.

 It was only realised much later that every single peptide was made in many parts of the body, including of course, the brain. Now we know that the peptides are actually manufactured throughout the whole body, e.g. immune cells, bone marrow and gut cells have receptors for and produce neuropeptides.

The T & B-cells of the immune system communicate with the brain and vice versa via the neuropeptides. Emotions can suppress lymphocyte function, others may enhance it.

All the neuropeptides have a similar molecular structure, with subtle differences in the tertiary structure, meaning that only the frequency and amplitude at which each molecule oscillates (wavelike vibrations of electrons in each molecule), differ.

Neuropeptides change configuration (like a chameleon) due to emotional influence, according to specific thoughts and emotions. Depending on the thoughts and emotions, specific neuropeptides are made in the brain and nervous system, white blood cells, reproductive system, digestive system and heart, to name but a few. They form a two-way network between psyche and soma, mind and body. The complicated and complex communication network between cells, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, hormones, immune system, blood and nerves, demands a remarkable orchestration of effective communication and integration of form and function, for the body-mind to work as one healthy, balanced and integrated whole.
   Pert describes the mysterious energy connecting body to mind & emotions as the free flow of information carried by the biochemical of emotion: neuropeptides and their receptors.

The strong link between emotional responses and the biochemical change they produce specifically in the immune system forms the basis of the field known as psycho-neuro-immunlogy or PNI.
Cortisol secreted during long term stress, plays a role in immune suppression. Structural changes in the neuropeptides play a role in immune incompetence.
Pert says: ‘it is possible now to conceive of mind and consciousness as an emanation of emotional information processing, and as such, mind and consciousness would appear to be independent from brain and body’.

 Let’s simplify the concept by using practical examples. The specific feel-good peptide (e.g. serotonin), bind to its specific receptors on the cell membrane. This sends a ‘feel-good’ message to the inside of the cell, right into the nucleus. The message influences every function the cell is responsible for.
Now consider the fact that you constantly think of things others have done to harm you; resentful, angry thoughts and feelings that grow and increase to disproportionate levels every time you think it.
The thoughts become emotions, then the neuropeptides that course through your body-mind, influencing cell function and efficacy.
Do you think that any cell receiving these messages for 30 years, would still feel like functioning well enough for you to be optimally happy, alive and fully self-actualizing to become all you’re meant to be?
Confucius said: ‘If you devote your life to seeking revenge, first dig two graves’. Your cells feel the way you do! Your thoughts do create your reality! What you spend your time thinking about, becomes the facts of your life. That’s why positive affirmations actually work – repeating simple, positive, powerful statements to yourself, changes the frequency of the vibrations around your own neuropeptides, allowing cells to function better, your mind to find solutions to reach your goals, and your whole body-mind system to function optimally.

Changing your habitual thought patterns to one of positivity and love, such as ‘ I am calm in my body, in my mind and in my emotions’, ‘I succeed’, ‘I love, accept and approve of myself just as I am’, ‘I live my truth’,  to remove energy blockages, will allow the electrons around the nucleus of your neuropeptides to send positive, feel-good vibrations of waves and particles throughout your body-mind being.
Cell memories Emotions like bitterness, unresolved anger, resentment, fear and worry constantly trigger your stress response. These then become buried in ever deepening layers inside the cell memories. The layers become the physical footprints of your dream body or  psyche, manifesting in physical illness or chronic health problems.

The field of psycho-neuro-immunology (PNI) explores the links between mind and body with regard to the immune system. Since nerve supply extends to all the components of the immune system (e.g. lymph nodes, thymus gland, and spleen), the nervous system with its head office inside the brain, will necessarily influence the immune system directly.
Stress and depression can suppress the activity of lymphocytes, the white blood cells that are the body’s first line of defense against cancer and invading organisms. Diseases of the immune system include HIV/aids, cancer, allergies, arthritis, infections, the auto-immune disorders such as ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, and many other conditions that are a consequence of either a under- or an over-active immune system.
Cells in the immune system are responsive to all 90 neuropeptides, that are triggered by our thoughts and emotions. Neuropeptides cause chemical changes in the body that can improve or weaken the immune system. Once immune cells receive the stress response alarm, they undergo changes and begin to produce powerful chemicals.
These substances allow the cells to regulate their own growth and behavior, enlist the help of other immune cells, and direct these to the areas of invasion or other trouble spots. Studies show that the HIV virus interferes with a peptide associated with feelings of self-esteem.
Establishing which emotions affect which neuropeptides will be the best treatment for all modern day illnesses!

Be aware of your emotions The whole range of human emotions are valid and worthy of your complete attention. Become aware of your emotions, try to find out what they want to communicate to you.

Endorphines: The brain produces its own neurotransmitters, the endogenous opiates (e.g. beta-endorphin). These chemicals are produced in the brain in response to a variety of stimuli. Endorphins were discovered in 1975. Stress & pain are the two most common triggers for release of the endorphins. Activation of the opiate receptors in the brain by the body's own endorphins do not cause addiction or dependence, whereas exogenous opiates, such as morphine and codeine, do lead to addiction and dependence.

Emotional Addiction

Did you know that you can become addicted to an emotion or emotions and those emotions keep you from moving forward in your life? Emotional addiction comes from genetics, ancestry, behaviors and attitudes.
Emotional addiction is the condition of being habitually or compulsively occupied with or involved in something. Emotions are holographic reactions to our experiences. There are chemicals for every emotional state we experience. The hypothalamus creates peptides which it sends out to thousands of receptors on one cell. They attach and signal what goes into our cells. We become addicted to an emotional state and stay addicted unless we change our attachments, emotions, and beliefs about things. We are emotions and emotions are we.
Emotions enrich our experience but our addictions to these emotions are the problem because they create bio-chemical addictions. 



When you think of all of your experiences with the emotions you have attached to them - from the brain going down to the very cells of your body - no wonder it is hard to leave abusive relationships, people, food, and sex. No wonder it is hard to overcome drug and alcohol addictions, food addictions, gambling addictions and more.
Not only is the recovery process changing attitudes and beliefs, it is also receiving and applying educational information, which creates a bio-chemical addiction recovery on both physical and mental levels. Our body uses combinations of special chemicals to produce each of the different emotions.
Do you know that there is a certain chemical combination for happiness, and sadness, and anger, and victimization, and any other emotion that you can think of?
Throughout the years, people develop an addiction to the different chemicals of different emotions. The point is the more people feel a certain emotion, the more addicted to that emotion they become. For example, if you get angry on a consistent basis, you develop an emotional addiction to the anger chemicals. And if you play a victim and cry why you long enough, you habituate that way of being and develop an emotional addiction to those specific chemicals.
As each of the cells divides, the new cells created need more and more of those specific chemicals in order to get the same stimulation as the old cell. So how does this all connect with the law of attraction?
Our usual emotional state attracts to us more of that emotional state. So you can see that if we are addicted to specific emotional states, we have to undo the habitual addiction to those negative emotional states and develop new behaviors and habits for the positive emotional chemicals.
Thus, people often will act in particular ways just to get the fix of their emotional addiction. For many people it is difficult to get past emotional addictions and develop more productive and positive emotional addictions.

Three Phases of love And Love/Relationship Addiction

"Over the last year and a half I have spent a great deal of time in research on Addiction, I have worked with two Psychologists and a Psychiatrist trying to find a logical explanation for Addiction . Not Addiction in the sex, drug, gambling sense. Although all addictions seem to take place in the same regions of the brain.
I was researching the cause of "Love or Relationship Addiction" and why people are drawn to the same types of personalities over and over again. What causes them to stay in abusive relationships with people who abuse them Emotionally, Sexually and Physically. The explanations I received were very good but they did not answer the nagging question as to "What is driving these personalities".

The explanation on the early childhood traumas and the "Repetition Complex" and being addicted to the "Highs and Lows" of a very Emotional unstable relationship were good but I knew there was more to it. I was taught me in my early Profiling years "Tony we are Profilers and Investigators" It is not enough to explain to our client when we have detected, identified and analyzed a trait but also what that trait means, what may have caused it and what we can do to help the client to understand it.

Please understand I am not a Psychologist nor am I trying to act like one. I am a profiler. I hope this article will help you understand this very complex behavior pattern called, "Love/Relationship Addiction"

Phase One;
When in love Chemicals in the Brain such as Dopamine ( One of the reasons drugs are called Dope) and Norepinephrine spark feelings of happiness and excitement within our brain and bodies. Dopamine levels increase as does levels of Oxytocin.
Cortisol a stress hormone goes down.

Phase Two;
Kissing ,touching, hugging and increased sexual contact keeps Dopamine and Oxytocin flowing within the Brain. It has been noted people who are in love have low levels of Serotonin. People who have OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) are insensitive to Serotonin. So love becomes an Obsession. 

Phase Three;
When someone is dumped or rejected, this Obsession intensifies, memories of the lost love overwhelms the rejected person's brain.
The breakup becomes a puzzle that must be solved this process is called " Frustration Attraction" rejection keeps Serotonin levels low which fuels the "Obsession" and stimulates production of Dopamine which intensifies the passion.
The rejection is also very stressful which increases the production of "Norepinephrine" a stress hormone, as far as the brain is concerned physical pain and the pain of rejection is the same thing.
Activating the same areas of the brain. Love hurts as much as any physical wound. With most people after a period of time the person realizes that it will not get the love or love interest back it craves like a drug. Levels of Dopamine and Serotonin normalize.
 With other personalities this cycle continues for extended periods of time.

Relationship Addiction
Love/relationship Addiction is very complex but I have come to learn that the same factors that take place in the Limbic Brain when someone is addicted to drugs or any other Addiction also takes place in the region of the Brain's Limbic System, with a "Love / Relationship Addiction".
Co- Dependency and Love Addiction are similar in appearance and behavior, but are not the same. They are kissing cousins so to speak.
Up until the early 1980's it was termed Co-Alcoholic it was then termed Co-Dependent now it is termed Relationship Addiction.

Phase One;
The cycle starts in early childhood with personalities who were not given the love, caring, nurturing and sense of security from primary caregivers. Personalities who have a low sense of self worth (Low Self-Esteem) can end up with an Anxious Preoccupied Attachment Style and fall victim to a Repetition Complex where they attach themselves to personalities who closely resembles the behavior patterns of their childhood primary care givers.
In their mind being loved and accepted by this new similar in behavior personality will fix all of the old wounds from the past, this concept is doomed to fail. We can learn from history but can not rewrite it. So this personality goes from relationship to relationship always seeking out the same personality type who's behavior was similar to the childhood care giver who abused them in the past, many times without even realizing they are doing it.
All in a failed attempt to right childhood wrongs. The personality attempts to acquire the love and affection that was denied them in childhood. There is much more to this behavior pattern which I will explain in other articles. For now this is the first stage.

Phase Two;
How is the Brain involved? This is what caused me the most confusion. In everything I was taught over the years is, that the Brain runs from pain and towards pleasure. This is true we are hard wired to protect ourselves from danger and pain. The Limbic System ( Our Emotional Brain) has a very simple protocol called the Freeze, Flight, Fight response. Which protects us from danger and unpleasant/painful situations. So why run toward a painful and sometimes dangerous person/situation.
This is where the Brain comes in and the Peptides within the Brain that the personality can and does become addicted to, this is called, Cellular Addiction. The same areas of the Brain that react to Heroin or Cocaine use that have shown increased activity in FMRI scans also show the same increased activity in the same area of the Brain when a person falls in love.
 In my early years of training Ron taught me "Tony there is no Logic to Emotion" He was so right, this may explain why.
In the Trine Brain theory postulated in 1952 by Dr. Paul MacLean we have the Reptilian Stem, the Limbic (Emotional Brain) and the Neo Cortex ( Our logical thinking Brain) This behavior is activated in the Emotional Limbic System. Not our Logical thinking Brain, hence "There is no Logic to Emotion"
Within our Limbic System there is a chemical manufacturing plant called the "Hypothalamus" this part of our brain assembles small Amino-Acid chain sequences called Peptides.
Peptides are chemical formations which exactly match every Emotion we experience, love, anger, sadness, etc.
It is very important to understand that Peptides are highly addictive to our cells. The cells have no preference over nice chemicals such as love, joy, bliss or bad chemicals associated with fear, abuse, trauma or pain. The cells in our body are totally unconditional. The cells never judge a Peptide as good or bad, the cells simply get addicted and hooked on the Peptides intensity.
It is the largest rush of Peptides that get our cells attention. 

If the cells are not receiving their addiction of choice, a little of the Peptide is held back by the cell and secreted back into the blood stream. It then travels to our brain neurons which then send messages to our Frontal Lobe calling up images from the past (Emotional Memories), we start thinking the same thoughts in order to create more of the same Peptide that were connected to that Positive or Negative Emotion.
The personality repeats the same behavior again and again never realizing it is a natural cycle of "Cellular Peptide addiction. This is why these Emotions cannot be addressed Logically. The personality is addicted to a behavior pattern and the Peptides associated with the Emotion.

As a Heroin or Cocaine addicted to their drug of choice and the high that it produces in the Brain, so is the Relationship Addict addicted to the release of addicting Peptides and the behavior it produces.



 Links: http://www.healthstresswellness.com/index.asp?pgid=72
http://www.drkathiemathis.com/emotional-addiction.html
http://www.ingenio.com/CommunityServer/UserBlogPosts/Anthony_Iantosca/Relationship-Love-Addiction/689811.aspx
http://www.peptideguide.com/peptide-bond.html

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